Services Offered:

Regulatory Guidance

Permit Applications

Best Available Control Technology Evaluations

Emissions Profiles

Meteorological Studies

Air Quality Modeling

Isopleth Maps and 3-D Plots of Concentrations

Stationary Source Analysis

Mobile Source Analysis

Health Impact Analysis

Clean Air Act Implementation

Tailpipe Controls

Remedial Measures

Public Information Programs

Employer Commuter Options


MOBILE 4.1 and 5




IMM and IMM4











What is the most effective emissions control system that will enable a regional medical waste incinerator in the Bronx to meet new state standards?

How can a high-rise residential project in Manhattan be reconfigured to avoid trapping emissions from a nearby power plant?

Does multiple source modeling of three resource recovery plants and 18 other sources in and around Palm Beach County, Florida show unacceptable impacts on the nearby Everglades Wildlife Refuge?

Will the air quality in a rural part of New Jersey be significantly affected by traffic generated by a proposed 1.6 million square-foot corporate headquarters?

Whether or not a project complies with precise federal and state air quality standards is the primary quantitative measure by which many projects are judged. The effect of both stationary sources (stacks, processes or garage vents) and mobile (vehicular) sources must be analyzed.

Stationary source air quality analysis requires the characterization of emissions, a complex procedure that we perform based on regulatory limits, test data of similar sources, and knowledge of the processes and of the efficiency of proposed controls. The result is a thoroughly documented emissions data base for specialized types of sources. A special service that Konheim & Ketcham offers is performing detailed engineering evaluations of the predicted performance and cost of alternative control systems to determine Best Available Control Technology (BACT). Our reports serve as components of permit applications that either we or a project's design engineers prepare.

Emissions factors, along with actual meteorological data are entered into USEPA-approved computer models that predict impacts on hundreds of receptors at relevant locations under all possible weather conditions.

The significance of the results is explained in relation to standards, guidelines and other health-based indexes. Ground level patterns of concentrations of pollutants are mapped. If needed, we evaluate the cumulative effect of multiple sources. In the rare cases that a micro scale analysis is necessary, we contract for a physical model of the project and its environs to be built and tested.

The impact of mobile sources on air quality depends upon dozens of variables: the mix of vehicles by age and type, whether or not they are running "hot", their travel speed and operating characteristics. As with stationary source air quality analysis, all assumptions and modeling methodologies must be spelled out and agreed to in advance by regulatory reviewers. Current models include: MOBILE 4.1 and 5, HIWAY2, CALINE3 and 4, IMM (Intersection Midblock Model), and AutoCAD, a computer graphics program used to layout an analysis area. If exceedances of any standard or other allowable increment are identified, we propose traffic control measures to remedy the problem.

In the case of pollutants for which official standards have not been established, a health impact assessment may be warranted to calculate the worst case effect. Konheim & Ketcham prepares preliminary assessments in house. If very extensive site specific toxicological studies are required, we manage the work of specialists. As part of the process, we consult with the affected public, perform deposition modeling, help to identify the likely routes of exposure in the affected community, and put the results into a real world perspective. The firm has a national reputation for its effectiveness in clearly communicating the results of such studies in oral and written presentations.

Konheim & Ketcham has also undertaken specialized air quality studies, such as assessing the effectiveness of Clean Air Act implementation strategies in representative cities and evaluating the adequacy of state run automotive emissions inspection programs. The professional backgrounds of Carolyn Konheim and Brian Ketcham, the firm's principals, as pioneering air pollution control officials and public interest advocates of clean air, adds to the ability of the firm to present findings to concerned citizens.